Social Engineering is a type of confidence trick, in order to influence people with the goal to persuade someone in order to obtain information (i.e. passwords, credit card information). Social Engineers observe the personal environment of their victims and use fake identities to gain secret information or free services. Social Engineering is also commonly used in order to infiltrate a computer network.
A common form of Social Engineering is called Phishing, which is an attempt to target an attack to the email of an user or employee. The most common way of Phishing is with an email related to personal banking information, where the victim is being sent a fake email, in order to make the user believe its something important, and causing the user to click or download a malicious payload. It also happens often in phishing emails, that the letter includes a link that is redirecting to a fake website created by the attacker, which is logging the user id and the password of the victim. This attack can be performed on a large scale of users, and is commonly called a Phishing Campaign.